A form of diabetes that occurs in pregnancy. Some women develop diabetes in pregnancy despite never having had this previously. Risk factors for this are:
- maternal age (risk starts increasing at age >25 years)
- history of diabetes in a first-degree relative (mother, sister, etc.)
- diabetes with a previous pregnancy
- delivery of a very large infant
Women who have gestational diabetes are at high risk for developing diabetes that is not associated with pregnancy. About 50% of women with gestational diabetes will become diabetic in the subsequent 20 years. The infants of women with gestational diabetes may also be more likely to become obese and diabetic. Gestational diabetes should always be treated with diet modification. Insulin may also be required. The risk of recurrence in a subsequent pregnancy is at least 30%.