Townes-Brocks syndrome is a rare multiple malformation syndrome characterized by anal, limb, ear, and renal anomalies. Intelligence is normal in most affected individuals. Diagnostic features include ano-rectal abnormalities (imperforate or anteriorly placed anus, anal stenosis, prominent midline perineal raphe); abnormalities of the hands and feet (preaxial polydactyly, triphalangeal thumbs, bifid thumbs and toes, finger and toe syndactyly); external ear malformations (preauricular tags or pits, "loop" or "satyr" ear, microtia, abnormal helix) with hearing loss (sensorineural, conductive or mixed); and renal abnormalities leading to impaired renal function or renal failure (unilateral or bilateral hypoplastic or dysplastic kidneys, multicystic kidneys, renal agenesis, posterior urethral valves, vesico-uretal reflex). Other, less common features are cardiac defects, mental retardation, eye, genitourinary and vertebral abnormalities, hypothyroidism, umbilical hernia, and gastroesophageal reflux. The intra- and interfamilial clinical presentation of TBS varies widely and overlaps with several other disorders including VATER and VACTERL associations, Okihiro syndrome, Fanconi anemia, Baller-Gerold syndrome, branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome and oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) spectrum. Important differentiating characteristics of TBS are the absence of radial hypoplasia, craniostenosis, and tracheo-esophageal fistula.
Carrier testing reasons for referral:
1. Testing parents of a child with a specific dominant mutation, in order to determine if the mutation in the child is new or inherited.
2. Carrier testing in parents of a child with apparently homozygous recessive mutations, to rule out the possibility that the child has one mutated allele and one allele that is deleted or refractory to amplification.
3. Carrier testing in the parents of a child with recessive mutations, to confirm that all four parental alleles can be detected prior to prenatal diagnosis.
4. Pre-symptomatic testing in siblings of the index case.
5. Carrier testing in the extended family.
Lab Staff: Send whole blood in original collection container labeled with patient name, date of birth and medical record number, including signed consent form and requisition, with a cool pack in warm weather, via overnight or second-day courier so that the sample will arrive at GeneDx, Inc. on a weekday (Monday through Friday). Samples drawn on Friday or Saturday should be held at refrigerated temperatures for shipment on Sunday. Do not freeze.
Note: Specimens may be stored at refrigerated temperatures for up to 7 days prior to shipping.
Mail the Cytobrush Plus Cell CollectorŽ kit, including signed consent form and requisition, by regular mail to GeneDx in the included envelope.