Author Archives: ChildrensMN

Be smart, safe with fireworks

For many families, the Fourth of July celebration includes fireworks. It's important to take the proper safety measures when using fireworks (iStock photo / Getty Images)

For many families, the Fourth of July celebration includes fireworks. It’s important to take the proper safety measures when using fireworks (iStock photo / Getty Images)

Subscribe to MightyBy Luul Mohamed and Alicia Youssef

The Fourth of July is a day filled with fun, excitement and celebration. Across the nation, families and friends gather to celebrate our nation’s independence. Follow these tips to ensure maximum fun and prevent injuries.

Firework safety tips

Each year in the U.S., thousands of adults and children are treated in emergency rooms for fireworks-related injuries.

At Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, we care for more pediatric emergency and trauma patients than any other health care system in our region, seeing about 90,000 kids each year between our St. Paul and Minneapolis hospitals. Children’s Hospital in Minneapolis is the area’s only Level I pediatric trauma center in a hospital dedicated to only kids, which means we offer the highest level of care to critically injured kids. From the seriously sick to the critically injured, we’re ready for anything.

The safest way to enjoy fireworks and avoid a visit to the emergency room is to attend a public fireworks display. However, if you choose to light them yourself, here are a few ways to enjoy the fun while keeping you and your children safe:

  • Keep fireworks of any kind away from children, even after they have gone off. Parts of the firework can still be hot or even explosive after fireworks have been lit.
  • Older teens should only use fireworks under close adult supervision.
  • Keep fireworks far away from dense areas where there are a lot of buildings and/or people.
  • Do not light fireworks around flammable items such as dead leaves, gas-powered equipment or fabrics, and be sure they’re pointed away from people, animals and buildings.
  • Always have a fire extinguisher, water bucket and/or hose readily available in case of an accidental fire.
  • After you have enjoyed your fireworks, be sure to pick up any debris or pieces of the firework that may be left in the area. These small pieces may pose as a choking hazard for young children.

The Fourth of July weekend also is a great time for travel and spending time in the water. Please view these articles for tips on water safety and traveling:

Fireworks references: The National Council on Fireworks Safety, Parents: Fireworks Safety

Luul Mohamed and Alicia Youssef are members of Children’s injury prevention program team.

Precautions increase camping enjoyment

Camping can be an enjoyable activity to share with family and friends. (iStock photo / Getty Images)

Camping can be an enjoyable activity to share with family and friends. (iStock photo / Getty Images)

By Luul Mohamed and Alicia Youssef

With school over and summer officially under way, a camping trip can be an enjoyable activity to share with your family and friends. Take advantage of these tips to have a fun and safe trip:

Skin and eye protection

First and foremost, you must effectively protect your skin before engaging in any outdoor activity, regardless of the weather.

  • The sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays are the strongest between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., so try to plan outdoor activities before or after those times.
  • Children 6 months and older should use sunscreen with a SPF (sun protection factor) of 15 or higher that protects against UVA and UVB rays. Do not use sunscreen on children younger than 6 months as they may ingest the sunscreen by sucking on their fingers or arms. Additionally, their skin is thinner and may absorb chemicals from the sunscreen. Instead, cover infants head to toe in clothing to keep them shaded at all times.
  • Wear sunglasses that go around the entire head that also protect against UVA and UVB rays.
  • Try to wear protective clothing that covers your arms and legs, wear a wide-brimmed hat and try to stay in the shade when you can.
  • Protect yourself from bug bites by applying bug repellent with DEET. The CDC recommends a 30-50 percent concentration of DEET to prevent the spread of pathogens carried by insects.
  • Sunscreen should be reapplied regularly, and bug repellent should not.

Subscribe to MightyPrepare yourself

  • Bring more than one first-aid kit.
  • Bring safe and healthy food with mostly nonperishable items and make sure all food is in waterproof containers and tightly packed.
  • Let others know where you’ll be going beforehand.
  • Avoid hypothermia by bringing insulated bedding and warm clothing for nights.
  • Stay well hydrated during the day by drinking plenty of water.

Water safety

  • Avoid swallowing water while swimming.
  • Always swim with a buddy and make sure there is an adult supervising at all times.
  • Whenever you are riding a water vehicle, always wear a U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jacket. Minnesota law requires children younger than 10 years old to wear a life jacket. We recommend that children older than that also should wear life jackets.
  • A life jacket should properly fit. You can determine the fit by a child’s weight.

Splish splash: The ins and outs of water safety (Twin Cities Moms Blog)

Fire/bonfire safety

  • When starting a fire, only burn dry, not damp, material and don’t use fire accelerants such as gas or lighter fluid.
  • Start the fire away from flammable things like trees and keep a bucket of water near.
  • Children should be supervised at all times and never near the fire.
  • Never burn containers that have foam or paint in them and never put pressurized containers into a fire. They may explode and release dangerous fumes.

For more information on camping safety, visit:

At Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, we care for more pediatric emergency and trauma patients than any other health care system in our region, seeing about 90,000 kids each year between our St. Paul and Minneapolis hospitals. Children’s Hospital in Minneapolis is the area’s only Level I pediatric trauma center in a hospital dedicated to only kids, which means we offer the highest level of care to critically injured kids. From the seriously sick to the critically injured, we’re ready for anything.

Luul Mohamed and Alicia Youssef are members of Children’s injury prevention program team.

Laser in action: See how Gavin’s tumor met its match

Gavin Pierson (left) and Joseph Petronio, MD, visit during a photo shoot at Children's – St. Paul on Monday, June 16, 2014.

Gavin Pierson (left) and Joseph Petronio, MD, visit during a photo shoot at Children’s – St. Paul on Monday, June 16, 2014.

In the two years since Gavin Pierson’s brain tumor, which he calls “Joe Bully,” was discovered, he has undergone 17 surgeries. A combination of craniotomies and the Pfizer drug, palbociclib, had been managing the growth of Joe Bully, but not decreasing its size. Gavin and his family were growing tired and frustrated with invasive surgeries, and Gavin wasn’t bouncing back as well as they hoped.

Enter Visualase.

Visualase is a laser used for neurosurgery and is guided by MRI images to precisely target areas of the brain that were previously thought inoperable. After making a 3-centimeter incision, Joseph Petronio, MD, and his team guided a small laser fiber directly to Gavin’s tumor. Children’s is the only pediatric hospital in the Midwest using Visualase, and Gavin is the only patient in the country to use this technology to treat a mature teratoma brain tumor.

Learn more about how Dr. Joseph Petronio used the Visualase laser:

Subscribe to MightyNot only did this technology target and dissolve a significant portion of Gavin’s tumor, it’s also prohibiting re-growth – stopping Joe Bully in its tracks. The laser is so targeted that the brain tissue surrounding the tumor was unharmed, making for a quick recovery. Within 12 hours, Gavin was sitting up, eating and laughing with his siblings and parents. Gavin went home the next day and was back to school within four days.

These types of minimally invasive surgeries have incredible benefits for Children’s patients. Since obtaining Visualase in October 2013, Children’s has treated patients as young as 12 months for epilepsy and other types of brain tumors. Tools like Visualase are making tumors we once thought were inoperable – operable.

Gavin vs. Joe Bully: First-of-its-kind laser surgery shrinks tumor by more than 40 percent

The Piersons (from left), Steve, Gavin, Nicole, Grace and Gage, have been through a lot in the past two years.

The Piersons (from left), Steve, Gavin, Nicole, Grace and Gage, have been through a lot in the past two years.

If you’ve been following 8-year-old Gavin Pierson’s story, you know he and his family have been through a lot. In 2012, Gavin was diagnosed with a mature teratoma brain tumor.

Since then, he has undergone numerous craniotomies and he and his family have dealt with big drug companies to fight his brain tumor, which Gavin refers to as “Joe Bully.” Unfortunately, Joe Bully is a particularly tough tumor, located in an area that is difficult to operate on and comprised of hard, “concrete-like” tissue. While Gavin’s prior treatments made progress, Joe Bully kept growing back.

give_gavin_blogBut it appears that Gavin’s neurosurgeon, Joseph Petronio, MD, may have found Joe Bully’s weak spot. Over the past eight months, Gavin has undergone two Visualase laser surgeries, an MRI-guided procedure designed to incinerate the tumor. He’s the first patient with a mature teratoma to ever use Visualase – and it may have stopped Joe Bully in its tracks.

Children’s and the family also successfully petitioned pharmaceutical company Pfizer to grant Gavin access to an experimental drug, palbociclib, to help control the tumor’s growth. Gavin is the youngest patient to use palbo.

We’re happy to announce that a recent MRI scan showed Gavin’s formerly peach-sized tumor has shrunk more than 40 percent. Even better? There are no signs of regrowth.

Gavin’s courage and strength inspire us every day. Thank you, Gavin, and congratulations.

Learn more about Gavin’s story and surgery:

Meet Red-Vested Rockstar Debbie Closmore

Debbie Closmore is a St. Paul volunteer with nearly 200 hours of service.

Debbie Closmore is a St. Paul volunteer with nearly 200 hours of service.

Children’s volunteer Debbie Closmore truly lights up a room with her laughter and positive energy. She isn’t afraid of a challenge and loves stepping up to the ever-changing needs in the surgery department.

Why she rocks

Debbie is a volunteer on the St. Paul campus; she was a float volunteer and currently serves as a peri-operative escort in our surgery department. She’s energetic and fun. Debbie serves as a trainer for new volunteers, passing on her knowledge and expertise. See why she got into volunteering at Children’s:

“I got into volunteering with hopes to ease the anxiety for children and their families during a stressful time,” Debbie said. “Spread a little joy!”

What’s your favorite thing to do outside of volunteering?

“I love spending time with my husband, family and friends. I also enjoy biking, hiking, yoga and walking, staying active.”

Do you have any kids or pets of your own?

“I have a stepson, daughter-in-law and five grandchildren.”

If you could create a new candy bar, what would be in it and what would you name it?

“My candy bar would be made with raw pecans, dates, figs, sunflower seeds and dark chocolate. I would name it ‘Healthy Me.’ ”

Share a favorite volunteer experience or story.

“I spent many hours rocking and holding an infant boy. Every week I went to his unit to rock and talk with him; we really had a connection. When he smiled at me, my heart sang.”

Thank you, Debbie, for your bright, positive energy and true commitment to Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota!

How to prevent and treat bug bites and stings

By Erin Dobie, CNP

Minnesota summers bring warm weather and opportunities for our kids to go outside exploring and playing in nature. Pesky insects often irritate or interrupt summer fun. Learn how to prevent insect bites, treat bites when they do occur, remove ticks and how to know when you should seek medical attention for your child.

How to treat bites

Insect bites and bee stings react because of venom injected into the skin. The severity of reaction depends on your child’s sensitivity to the venom. Most reactions are mild, causing redness, local swelling and irritation or itching. These usually will go away in two to three days. Calamine lotion or any anti-itch gel or cream may help soothe the itching.

Bee stings cause immediate pain and a red bump, but usually the discomfort lessens within 15 minutes. More than 10 bee stings at once (extremely rare) may cause a more-severe reaction with vomiting, diarrhea and headache. Allergic reactions to bee stings can be severe and quickly get worse. These reactions include difficulty breathing, swelling of the lips, tongue or throat, or confusion. Children who have a severe reaction need immediate medical attention, and you should call 911. If the child has a known bee allergy and an Epi-pen is available, the Epi-pen should be administered in addition to calling 911. If a stinger is present, try to rub it off with something flat such as the edge of a credit card. Do not try to squeeze the stinger out or try to dig it out. If it does not come out easily, soak the area in water and leave it alone to come out on its own.

Tick bites don’t often cause much of a local reaction. They’re primarily concerning because they can transmit infectious diseases. Ticks are prevalent in Minnesota. They’re generally found on the ground in wooded or heavily bushy areas. Ticks can’t jump or fly. Generally they climb grass and climb onto someone to attach as we brush up against them. Ticks are most active during the spring and summer months.

There are a few different infectious diseases that can be transmitted by ticks, but the most common one found in the Minnesota-Wisconsin area is Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi). To infect a person, a tick typically must be attached to the skin for at least 36 hours. The incubation period, the time from infection to being symptomatic, is anytime between three and 30 days.

Lyme disease can present in many different stages. Early localized stage often includes a red ring-like rash (or may resemble a “bull’s eye” target) that slowly expands. Other symptoms include headache, fever, joint or muscle aches and overall not feeling well or excessively tired. If your child develops these symptoms within a few days to weeks after tick exposure you should seek medical attention to evaluate for Lyme disease. Lyme disease is evaluated by medical history, physical examination and sometimes a blood test. It may take the body several weeks to develop antibodies and the blood test may not show up positive early in the disease. Most cases of Lyme disease are easily and successfully treated with a few weeks of antibiotics.

How to prevent a bite

Prevention is the key to avoiding insect bites. I recommend insect repellent that contains at least 20 percent DEET. The higher concentration of DEET does not indicate better repellent; it just means that the repellent will last longer. Most repellents can be used on infants and children older than 2 months. Other effective repellents contain permethrin, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus and IR3535. Permethrin-treated clothing is an option if the child will be camping or on wooded hikes. Finally, showering or bathing soon after exposure to tick areas is important to check for and remove ticks. Parents should pay close attention and check children for ticks under the arms, in and around the ears, inside the belly button, behind the knees, between the legs, around the waist and especially in their hair on their scalp. Dogs should be treated for ticks, but also checked as the ticks can ride into the home on the dogs then attach to a person later.

How to remove a tick

If you find a tick attached to your child’s skin, there is no need to panic.

  1. Use a fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin’s surface as possible.
  2. Pull upward with steady, even pressure. Do not twist or jerk the tick, as this often can cause the tick’s mouth to break off and remain in the skin. If the mouth breaks off: try to remove it. If it cannot be removed easily, don’t dig it out; just wash and allow it to fall out on its own.
  3. After removing the tick, clean the skin with soap and water or rubbing alcohol.

The road to recovery: Pediatric cancer services

Each year, close to 12,500 children in the U.S. are diagnosed with cancer. Among them who live in the Upper Midwest, more than 70 percent are treated by Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota. This week we shared Jenna Carnes’ cancer journey on Twin Cities Moms Blog. Jenna is one of many teens we see in Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Clinic each week, and just like every pediatric cancer patient, her journey is a unique one.

Jenna Carnes (left) and her mother, Barbara, enjoy a Minnesota Twins baseball game at Target Field in Minneapolis. (Photo courtesy of Barbara Carnes)

Jenna Carnes (left) and her mother, Barbara, enjoy a Minnesota Twins baseball game at Target Field in Minneapolis. (Photo courtesy of Barbara Carnes)

“Like all of our patients, we want Jenna to still be a kid and not to have to grow up too quickly because of the disease she’s dealing with,” said Dr. Joanna Perkins, Jenna’s treating physician in the Cancer and Blood Disorders Clinic at Children’s. “With the suite of treatment options we offer, Jenna’s been able to get back to being a normal teen.”

Beginning with the Child Life department, Jenna utilized many of Children’s support services to help her in her healing journey. From how to talk about cancer with her friends at school to going to surprise Minnesota Twins baseball games with her family, Jenna said her child life specialists made each day that she was at the hospital just a little easier. This was a welcome relief for her family.

“What makes Children’s different than any other hospital are the services we offer that go above and beyond standard inpatient care,” said Dr. Perkins. “From the supportive care – ranging from physical therapy, psychology and nutrition specialists, music therapy, massage and pain and palliative care – to special events geared towards the whole family, we try to make the time kids and families have to spend in the hospital as good as it can be. A lot of kids appreciate the simple things, too – big TVs and video games.”

In addition to Children’s in-house services, many patients (including Jenna) go to Camp Courage in Maple Lake, Minn., to “just be a kid” for a week each summer. The camp also provides patients’ families with a much-needed break. With Children’s staff physicians and nurses, onsite, to administer medication and keep close watch on their patients, patients and their siblings take part in time-honored camp traditions and let loose for the week.

“Kids of all ages are there, and we’re all going through something really similar,” said Jenna. “There are no strange looks.”

As Jenna and her family prepare to celebrate the end of her chemotherapy treatments, Jenna’s care team at Children’s will be by her side, cheering her on at her end-of-treatment party on June 12. Soon, Jenna will be a part of Children’s Destination STAR (Surveillance and Testing After Recovery) Clinic, which assists her with the transition to life after cancer therapy. She’ll work with Children’s Health and Wellness Team, consisting of staff members from oncology, nutrition services, physical therapy, psychology and child life, as well as her primary care physician for wellness visits to make sure the cancer does not return.

“Going to the hospital for cancer treatments will never be fun,” said Jenna. “But, I’m honestly going to miss coming to Children’s – it’s almost become a second home.”

Visit Children’s Hospitals and Clinics’ Cancer and Blood Disorders Clinic for more information. Children’s first annual Shine Bright Bash on Sept. 13 is to celebrate and support the advancements in pediatric cancer and blood disorder care.

Animals are great family members, except when they’re not

Teach kids to respect your animal’s space. (iStock photo / Getty Images)

By Dex Tuttle

Even before the pitter-patter of toddler feet, our house was plenty busy. My wife and I jokingly referred to our dog, Sprocket, and cat, Harvey, as training for parenthood. By the time our daughter, Quinnlyn, came around, we already had learned to keep valuables out of reach and close the doors to the rooms where we didn’t want roaming paws. And we quickly learned the value of eating our meals after distracting the animals to avoid begging eyes.

In addition to providing safety challenges, animals have an uncanny way of creating rules for your house, with or without your approval. Regardless of your expectations of them, they almost always get their way. (Those with toddlers will recognize the similarity here.) In our case, for example, we insisted that Sprocket not be allowed on the furniture – and he most definitely would not be allowed to sleep in our bed. He had different plans, though, and now I’m regularly curled up in the only free corner of our king-sized bed and rarely leave the house without fur-covered pants.

After we introduced the pets to Quinnlyn, Harvey disappeared for what seemed like the better part of a year while Sprocket was quite concerned about losing out on time with us. What remained to be seen was how these interspecies siblings would get along once Quinn became more mobile. We had two animals who thought they owned the house and a new queen who demanded nearly all of our attention. Naturally, there was some ruffled fur.

Recently, Sprocket was lying comfortably on the couch while I was typing away in the recliner near him. Quinn recognized the quiet, relaxing vibe and felt it needed a little chaos. She grabbed her step stool, crawled up on the couch and tried to climb up on Sprocket’s back, hoping to get a free doggie ride. Sprocket alerted me with the warning signs – he first tried to move away then let out a little growl before licking Quinn’s face. Thankfully, I was able to intervene before he got increasingly upset, but his behavior understandably is confusing to Quinn, so she continued to try to climb aboard.

Therein lays the challenge: No matter how well trained, animals are instinctual beings that are territorial, protective and usually inflexible on changing the rules they created. Young children are curious beings who discover their world by poking, prodding, throwing, climbing and chasing. Pairing children and pets can be simultaneously developmentally rewarding and potentially dangerous.

Here are some tips to help keep your kids safe around dogs:

Household pets

  • Dogs typically don’t like hugs and kisses, particularly when it’s not on their own terms. Teach kids to respect your animal’s space.
  • Don’t stare at a dog in close proximity to its face as this can be interpreted as an act of aggression.
  • Dogs that are tied up, cooped in or curled up (sleeping or relaxing) may be more agitated if approached – they either want to get out or be left alone.
  • Know that dogs don’t only attack when they’re angry (growling, barking, hair standing up); they can attack because they’re scared; a dog with its mouth closed, eyes wide and ears forward may indicate that it’s scared or worried.
  • Recognize these behaviors in your family dog to know it’s time to stop playing and give your pet some space:
    • Avoidance – hiding behind something or someone or turning its head away
    • Submission – rolling on its back, licking, or leaving the room; even though the dog is giving up now, it may not some day
    • Body language – tail between legs or low with only the end wagging, ears in a non-neutral position, rapid panting, licking its chops, or shaking out its fur
    • Acting out – tearing up or destroying personal possessions such as toys or other items your family uses frequently, or urinating or defecating in the house; these may be signs that your dog should be seen by a behavioral professional – don’t delay!

Pets outside of your family (tips courtesy of Children’s Hospital of Michigan)

  • Always ask an adult’s permission before approaching or petting a dog. Start by letting the dog sniff you, then gently pet under its chin or on top of its head, but never its tail, back or legs.
    • Never run or scream if a dog comes up to you
    • Never try to ride a bike away from a dog; they can run faster than you can bike
    • Always be calm around dogs and don’t look them in the eye; they may see this as an act of aggression
    • Stand still like a tree or rock and let the dog sniff you. If a dog starts biting, put whatever you have (backpack, stick, toy, etc.) in its mouth.
      • Avoid dogs that are eating, playing with toys, tied up in a yard, or behind a fence; also avoid dogs who look ill or angry
      • Never tease a dog by throwing things at it, barking at it, etc.

Dex Tuttle is the injury prevention program coordinator at Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota.

NBC News: Sharing the story of Children’s cancer and blood disorders expertise

Michael and Megan Flynn with sons Andrew, 7 months, and Thomas, 5, and daughter Olivia, 3 (Photo by Julie Ratkovich Simply Bliss Photography)

NBC News shared the story and collective work of Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota’s blood and cancer disorders team, including Dr. Kris Ann Schultz, Dr. Yoav Messinger, Gretchen Williams, CCRP, and Anne Harris, MPH, among others, who have led the way in enabling the early detection and effective treatment of children in families affected by rare genetic cancers.

via NBC News: One rare cancer leads to another: Cancer registry saves baby’s life

In 2009, while trying to understand pleuropulmonary blastoma (or PPB, a rare early childhood lung cancer), researchers leveraging data from Children’s International Pleuropulmonary Blastoma (PPB) Registry uncovered an unexpected cause: a mutation in DICER1, a master controller gene that helps regulate other genes. By leveraging those learnings and coupling it with new data from the International Ovarian and Testicular Stromal (OTST) Registry – a “sister” registry of the International PPB Registry – Children’s has recently discovered that the DICER1 gene mutation may underlie many additional rare childhood genetic cancers and could tell us something fundamental about how most cancers arise.

Children’s presented its promising findings this weekend at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, advancing the potential for early diagnosis and proactive treatment of children in families affected by PPB, as well as other rare genetic cancers such as certain ovarian, nose, eye and thyroid tumors.

With the establishment of the International PPB Registry in 1988 and the International OTST Registry in 2011, Children’s, along with our partners, have become the world’s leading experts on how to care for children with PPB and other cancers marked by the DICER1 genetic defect. As a result, PPB could be among the first cancers routinely curable before it progresses to a deadly form.

Children’s work and ability to follow the science continues to be made possibly entirely by philanthropy, including the St. Baldrick’s Foundation and the Pine Tree Apple Tennis Classic.

Congratulations to the Children’s cancer and blood disorders team!  Thank you for your commitment and your amazing, groundbreaking work.

Trustworthy: Vaccines have earned that title

Two doses of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine will prevent measles in 99 percent of those vaccinated.

By Patsy Stinchfield, PNP

The confirmation of 83 cases of measles in Ohio this month and the recent quick diagnosis of a 19-month-old with measles in Minneapolis, Minnesota’s first case of measles this year, brought a timely reminder that the potentially deadly virus has not been eradicated and of the importance of vaccination. Having just wrapped World Immunization Week and National Infant Immunization Week, the importance of immunization is as great as ever.

In fact, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported today that the 288 cases of measles in the country so far this year are the highest since 2000. The number of cases reported this year is the highest for the first five months of a year since 1994.

I worry that the numbers are a sign of growing credibility for a small band of celebrities and others who have thrown up an online smoke screen of fear of vaccines against measles, whooping cough and other common childhood diseases.

If even a relatively small percentage of Americans buy into this criticism, it would be disastrous. Measles, one of the most contagious airborne diseases, can be extremely serious, leading in rare cases to pneumonia and fatal brain infections. Infants too young to be vaccinated particularly are at risk.

We’re fortunate that the child in Minnesota, who actually had one of two measles shots and apparently contracted the disease during a visit to India, was diagnosed within minutes at Children’s – Minneapolis. Because the alert medical team picked up the symptoms so quickly, only 16 potentially exposed people had to be notified after the child was quarantined.

Three years ago, as many as 700 contacts had to be reached for some patients during an outbreak at Children’s.

What’s most frustrating is that it’s all so unnecessary.

The virus hasn’t changed all that much. It’s not like the HIV virus, constantly mutating. No; with measles the culprit purely is social – a breakdown in trust of medical experts whose longtime vaccine advocacy made measles and other common childhood infections a footnote.

Fear-mongering online vaccine critics are not winning, in a classical political sense. Thankfully, more than 90 percent of parents still trust their health care providers and nationally recommended vaccines. If they didn’t, we would see frequent headlines about deaths from measles, whooping cough and other diseases.

However, the remaining 10 percent of parents are hesitant, have vague fears and wonder who to trust. They routinely hear or read vehement vaccine bashing in social media circles, which feeds fear and denial – and new outbreaks. New York City and Orange County, Calif., currently are dealing with measles outbreaks.

Measles is so highly contagious that just passing through a clinic waiting room two hours after someone with measles has been there can expose an unvaccinated newborn, which may be devastating.

We all must protect the vulnerable in our community by forming a protective barrier of our own vaccination. That’s a simple point seemingly lost on the peddlers of myth and pseudoscience who have infected too many parents with baseless fear of vaccines that protect their own children and the community at large.

Parents should trust health care professionals who urge vaccination on schedule. At Children’s, we speak from experience. We have seen children die or become permanently impaired from vaccine-preventable disease. Ask our specialists how many unvaccinated, critically ill children they have cared for, and they would answer “too many to count.” And how many they’ve seen with severe vaccine side effect? You’ll get a blank stare, or “I don’t recall any; maybe one at most.”

We have seen children with measles on a ventilator, fighting for their lives. That’s a bitter sight when you recognize that two doses of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine will prevent measles in 99 percent of those vaccinated. There’s no contest between the benefits of vaccines and their extremely rare risks.

Before the measles vaccine was developed in the 1960s, there were 2.6 million measles-related deaths per year worldwide. In 2012, that number was down to 122,000, mostly in children younger than 5 in parts of the world where vaccines are scarce or their parents refuse to allow vaccination. The point is that we can’t afford to let our guard down in the U.S. or elsewhere. In a global society measles is a mere plane ride away for the unprotected.

The safe, effective and trustworthy action for infants, children, adolescents and adults is to get vaccinated on time for all recommended vaccine-preventable diseases.

Aside from sanitary drinking water, vaccines remain the safest, most-life-saving medical intervention we have to protect our children.

Patsy Stinchfield, PNP, is the director of Infection Prevention and Control and the Children’s Immunization Project at Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota.