Giving News & Highlights
Brain & Spinal Tumors
About the Brain
Before you can understand about brain and spinal tumors, it’s helpful to understand the anatomy of the brain and spine and how they function.
The brain and spinal cord make up the body’s central nervous system (CNS). Nerves in the brain and spinal cord send messages throughout the body. The CNS controls much of our daily activity – our thoughts, memories, emotions, sensations, motor skills, vision, respirations, temperature, hunger and other processes throughout our body. The CNS regulates who we are, our personality, our affect and our responses.
The brain can be divided into three major parts:
Cerebrum – the largest area of the brain composed of the right and left hemispheres.
Cerebellum – is the second largest area of the brain that consists of two hemispheres or halves, as well as the middle portion. The cerebellum is responsible for balance and the coordination of voluntary movements. It also plays an ill-defined role in language.
Together, the cerebrum and cerebellum make up the front of the brain and consist of four major lobes, each responsible for certain functions of the body. The frontal lobes are responsible for intellect, behavior, personality, short-term memory and initiation of voluntary movement. The parietal lobes process sensory information. The temporal lobes process speech, language, hearing and memory. The occipital lobes process visual information.
Brainstem – the brainstem is the bottom portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. The brainstem is divided into three parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla oblongata. The midbrain is a passageway for visual and auditory information and partially controls eye movement. The pons is the passageway for information traveling between the cerebellum and the cerebrum, and partially controls eye movements, facial movement and facial sensation. The medulla oblongata controls vital functions to life such as breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, swallowing and vomiting.
Cerebral spinal fluid circulates through the entire CNS. This helps to cushion the delicate CNS tissues located inside the boney cranium and vertebral bodies. The brain contains four large spinal fluid spaces called ventricles – two lateral ventricles located in the cerebrum, the third ventricle located above the midbrain, and fourth ventricle located behind the brainstem and in front of the cerebellum.
The spinal cord is a continuation of the brainstem. It carries signals from the brain to the body controlling movement and sensation of the arms and legs and movement of the chest wall needed for breathing. It also controls the function of the bowel and bladder. The spinal cord is made up of several segments: the cervical cord, thoracic cord, lumbar cord, sacral cord and cauda equine. Twenty-six bones or vertebrae make up the vertebral column that surrounds and helps protect the spinal cord.
Photo provided by Cure Search.
Brain & Spinal Tumors
Central nervous system tumors (known as "CNS" tumors or tumors of the brain and spinal cord) demand immediate, delicate, and comprehensive care. At Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, we diagnose and treat your child's tumor with advanced tools and expert staff.
The team of professionals in Children's brain and spinal cord tumor program takes pride in their comprehensive, collaborative approach to care of children diagnosed with a CNS tumor.
Our goal is to help each child reach the best possible emotional, cognitive and health outcomes throughout childhood and into adult life. We know the family is at the center of this team and is essential to help the child regain health and reach their maximal potential.
Each child and family develops relationships with a consistent group of doctors, nurses and others who specialize in the care of children with brain and spinal cord tumors. The team oversees the unique and complex needs of the child using a personalized approach to best understand your child and family throughout treatment and survivorship.
- Why Choose Children's?
- About the brain
- What is a brain and spinal cord tumor?
- Who treats brain and spinal cord tumors at Children's?
- Steps in making a diagnosis
- Treatment options
When a tumor grows in the brain, it can occur in all sorts of odd shapes and sizes. The goal of removing a tumor during surgery is to remove as many abnormal cells as possible. In other parts of the body where tumors grow, surgeons often remove tissue around a tumor as well as the tumor itself to increase the chances that all known cancerous tissue is removed. In the brain, removing normal brain tissue can affect brain function.
What is Intraoperative MRI?
Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a real-time, computer-assisted surgical navigation tool. It allows surgeons to pinpoint the location of tumors and lesions, including those previously considered inoperable.
How do surgeons use Intraoperative MRI?
With intraoperative MRI, while your child is undergoing surgery, he or she also is undergoing a magnetic resonance imaging scan that maps the brain in real time, so the greatest number of tumor cells can be removed without harming nearby healthy cells.
What are the benefits of Intraoperative MRI?
Using intraoperative MRI helps surgeons pinpoint the location of tumors and lesions, which has several benefits:
Some tumors previously considered inoperable can be surgically removed.
Post-operative treatment, such as radiation and chemotherapy, are more effective when more of the tumor cells have been removed.
Patients may be able to go a longer period of time without a tumor recurrence, or may not have a tumor recurrence at all.
Read a story about Intra-operative MRI at Childrens in Children's Practice Magazine.
If you are a family member looking for a Children's hematologist or oncologist or wanting to schedule an appointment, please call our clinic at Children's – Minneapolis at (612) 813-5940.
If you are a health professional looking for consultation or referral information, please call Children's Physician Access at 1-866-755-2121 (toll-free) and ask for the on-call hematologist/oncologist.