Pediatric hydrocephalus is a condition caused by an excessive buildup of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. CSF is a clear fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord, protecting them from injury. When the fluid builds up in the brain, it can cause increased pressure within the head. Hydrocephalus can occur for a variety of reasons. Sometimes, it is caused by an overproduction of CSF and other times, it may be due to the body’s inability to drain or reabsorb the fluid. It can be present at birth (congenital) or occur after birth (acquired). Pediatric hydrocephalus can be damaging if left untreated, but with early diagnosis and treatment, children with hydrocephalus can often lead normal, healthy lives. According to the Hydrocephalus Association, one to two of every 1,000 babies born in the U.S. will have hydrocephalus and more than one million people in the U.S. are currently living with hydrocephalus.