Children's Specialties and Departments

Acute Care

Acute Care refers to short-term medical treatment, usually in a hospital, for patients having an acute illness or injury. The word acute refers to either a rapid onset and/or short-term illness. Nurse practitioners certified in Acute Care assess and treat sick children in collaboration with physicians and other members of the healthcare team.

Adolescent Medicine

Adolescent medicine is a medical subspecialty that focuses on the care of teenagers and young adults.

Advanced Practice Registered Nurse

An Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) is a licensed registered nurse who has completed graduate training as a nurse practitioner (RN CNP), clinical nurse specialist (RN CNS), nurse anesthetist (CRNA), or nurse-midwife. APRNs can have subspecialties or concentrations in a specific field or patient population in healthcare.

Allergy & Immunology

Allergy & Immunology is a medical subspecialty that focuses on the study and treatment of the body’s reaction to foreign substances. The conditions treated by allergists include hay fever, asthma, hives and allergic responses to substances that range from dust and food to animals, insect bites, and chemicals.

Anatomic Pathology

Anatomic Pathology is a medical subspecialty that focuses on the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, chemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs, tissues, and whole bodies (autopsy).

Anesthesiology

Anesthesiology is a medical specialty that is primarily concerned with administering various medications that keep patients from feeling pain during and after surgery and other procedures. Anesthesiologists and certified registered nurse anesthestists (CRNA) also manage patients with chronic pain.

Blood Banking/
Transfusion Medicine

Blood Banking / Transfusion Medicine is a branch of medicine that is concerned with the safe transfusion of blood and blood components. The blood bank is the section of the clinical laboratory where medical technologists process and distribute blood products.

Cardiology

Cardiology is a medical subspecialty that focuses on the evaluation and treatment of conditions of the heart. Cardiologists perform heart catheterization and interpret echocardiograms, treadmill and other tests of heart function. Pediatric cardiologists evaluate and treat the heart problems of children.

Cardiology, Electrophysiology

Cardiac electrophysiology is a subspecialty of cardiology that focuses on problems with heart rhythm and the electrical system of the heart. Heart arrhythmias can be detected and treated with electrophysiology. See also Cardiology.

Cardiology, Interventional

Interventional Cardiology is a subspecialty of cardiology that deals specifically with catheter-based treatment of structural heart diseases. Procedures are performed by heart catheterization to treat such conditions as arrhythmias, septal defects, narrow blood vessels, and blood clots. It is an alternative to open heart surgery. See also Cardiology.

Cardiovascular Surgery

Cardiovascular surgery is a surgical specialty that performs open-heart surgery and surgery on blood vessels. It is used to treat conditions such as congenital heart disease and other diseases of the heart.

Child Abuse Pediatrics

Child Abuse Pediatrics is a medical specialty focused on the medical intervention of a physically abused child. Child abuse is a very complex and dangerous set of problems that include child neglect and the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse of children.

Craniofacial

Craniofacial specialties focus on the treatment of the malformations or injuries of the head, neck, and face, such as cleft lip and palate. Ear, nose, and throat surgeons (otolaryngologists), plastic surgeons, neurological surgeons, oral & maxillofacial surgeons, orthodontists, and other specialties collaborate to assess and treat these problems.

Critical Care, Pediatric

Also known as Intensive Care, the specialty of Pediatric Critical Care focuses on the treatment of children with life-threatening injuries and illnesses that require close, constant attention by a team of specially trained health professionals, generally within an intensive care unit.

Colon & Rectal Surgery

Colon & Rectal Surgery is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of patients with colon and rectal conditions and diseases of the intestinal tract, specifically in the colon, rectum, anal canal. Colorectal surgeons have advanced training in the management of conditions such as colorectal polyps and cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis), diverticulitis or diverticulosis, as well as common anal conditions such as hemorrhoids, fissures, abscesses and fistulas. They have special skills in the performance of endoscopic procedures of the lower intestinal tract (colonoscopy) and are also trained in anorectal physiology required for the evaluation and treatment of constipation and accidental bowel leakage.

Dentistry

Dentists focus on prevention and treatment of problems of the teeth and gums, including the repair of the teeth injured by decay or trauma.

Dentistry, Endodontics

Endodontics is the branch of dentistry that specializes in treatment of diseases and injuries to the tooth pulp and the tissues surrounding the root of a tooth. Endodontists perform a variety of procedures including root canal therapy.

Dentistry, Orthodontics

Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry that specializes in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. It involves the application and control of corrective appliances (braces, head gear, spacers, retainers, etc.) to bring teeth, lips and jaws into proper alignment and to achieve facial balance.

Dentistry, Pediatric

Pediatric dentistry is a branch of dentistry focused on the needs of children, including providing dental care to children with special needs. See also Dentistry.

Dentistry, Periodontics

Periodontics is the branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of functional and structural diseases of the gums, periodontal membrane and related tissues that surround and support the teeth.

Dentistry, Prosthodontics

Prosthodontics is the branch of dentistry concerned with the construction of fixed or removable prosthetic appliances (such as bridges, dentures, implants, etc.) to replace missing teeth or other structures of the oral cavity.

Dermatology

Dermatology is a medical specialty focused on the study and treatment of disorders and diseases of the skin. Dermatologists help patients deal with a range of concerns, from warts to acne to skin cancers.

Dermatopathology

Dermatopathology is a subspecialty of dermatology and surgical pathology that is focused on the microscopic diagnosis of skin disease. See also Dermatology and Pathology.

Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are illnesses that feature disturbances in eating behavior and weight regulation. The main types of eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, avoidant restrictive food intake disorder, and binge eating disorder. Eating disorders are associated with adverse physical, psychological, and social consequences. The onset of these illnesses is often in adolescence or young adulthood, but eating disorders may also appear in children or later in life. Eating disorders often coexist with other conditions such as depression or anxiety disorders. Eating disorders are treatable medical illnesses, but symptoms may become life threatening without treatment.

Emergency Medicine

Emergency Medicine is a medical specialty focused on the medical screening and treatment of patients presenting to an emergency department, including the urgent management of severe or life threatening conditions that require immediate attention to preserve life or stabilize health.

Endocrinology

Endocrinology is a medical specialty focused on the study and treatment of disorders and diseases of the internal glands of the body. Endocrinologists are concerned with the thyroid, pituitary and adrenal glands, among others, as well as disorders of nutrition, sexual development , blood sugar control (diabetes), and blood pressure.

ENT (Ear, Nose, & Throat)

See Otolaryngology.

Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study of the factors affecting the health and illness of populations.

Family Practice

Family Medicine is a primary care medical specialty focused on the prevention, evaluation, treatment, and comprehensive coordination of care for the physical and mental health conditions of all members of the family. Family practice builds upon the core knowledge derived from pediatrics, internal medicine, OB/GYN, geriatrics, surgery and psychiatry.

Gastroenterology

Gastroenterology is a medical specialty focused on the study and treatment of conditions of the esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, gall bladder, and pancreas. Gastroenterologists can look inside the intestines, perform biopsies, and remove some intestinal growths using an endoscope (an endoscope is an instrument used to examine the interior of an organ).

General Surgery

General Surgery is a medical specialty focused on the study and practice of all types of surgical operations. General surgeons perform a number of procedures aimed at treating a range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, appendicitis, tonsillitis and hernia.

Genetic Counseling

Genetic Counseling is a process that helps a family to understand its risk for a particular genetic disorder and to cope with the disorder if that risk becomes reality.

Genetics

Genetics (sometimes called Medical Genetics) is a medical specialty focused on the identification and management of genetic disorders and hereditary factors that cause disease, birth defects, or susceptibility to a health problem.

Genetics & Genomics

Genetics and Genomics is a medical specialty (children and adults) that is aimed at finding an underlying explanation for rare and common inherited disorders as well as for risk factors predisposing to disease or adverse response to treatment. Genetic specialists investigate genes or genetic pathways in patients with complex medical presentations, while genomics refers to the study of the entire human DNA (all genes and regions in between) with the aim to inform medical care decisions by providers.

Gynecology, Pediatric & Adolescent

Pediatric and adolescent gynecology is a medical subspecialty of gynecology focused on the study, care, and treatment of disorders of the female reproductive system of infants, children, and teenagers. Pediatric and adolescent gynecologists also perform surgery to treat diseases or congenital abnormalities of the female genital tract.

Hematology-Oncology, Pediatric

Pediatric Hematology-Oncology is a specialty focused on the diagnoses and treatment of cancer and disorders of the blood. A hematologist treats blood diseases such as anemia, sickle cell disease, and clotting disorders. Oncologists treat cancer, including solid tumors (such as lymphoma, neuroblastoma, and Wilm?s tumor) and cancers of the blood (leukemia). Oncology includes the use of chemotherapy to kill cancer cells, painkillers to manage cancer pain, and drugs and other treatments that eliminate or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.

Hematopathology

Hematopathology is the branch of pathology that studies diseases of cells found in the blood and bone marrow, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. See also Pathology.

Hemophilia and Thrombosis

Hemophilia is a group of bleeding disorders in which it takes a long time for the blood to clot. Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.

Hepatobiliary and Pancreas

Hepatobiliary is having to do with the liver plus the gallbladder, bile ducts, or bile.

Immunology

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms.

Infectious Diseases, Pediatric

Pediatric Infectious Disease is a medical field that focuses on infections of all types, specifically in children. An infection is the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms (bacteria) in or on body tissue that produce signs and symptoms as well as an immune response. Children and the elderly are especially susceptible to infections. The severity of an infection varies.

Integrative Medicine

Integrative Medicine is the branch of medicine that takes a whole-person approach designed to treat the person, not just the disease. The goal is to treat the mind, body, and spirit, all at the same time and it uses therapies that have some high-quality evidence to support them. Some techniques use herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage, biofeedback, yoga, and stress reduction techniques.

Internal Medicine

Internal Medicine involves all diseases and total healthcare. It is a broad-based medical field in which physicians rely on their knowledge of major organs to diagnose and treat patients. Internists treat a variety of afflictions, from colds and heart problems to infectious diseases. Internists often serve as a patient’s primary doctor, coordinating all of the patient’s healthcare.

Interpreter Services

Interpreter Services include individuals who receive specialized training in medical terminology who can interpret medical information provided by a healthcare professional for non-English speaking or hearing impaired patients and their families.

Lactation

Lactation is the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the process of providing that milk to the young. Lactation services are provided by professionals trained to help mothers who want to breastfeed their babies.

Maternal & Fetal Medicine

Maternal and Fetal Medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the growth, development, care, and treatment of the fetus and disorders of pregnancy and childbirth in both the mother and child.

Maternal and Child Health

Maternal and Child Health is the branch of medicine organized for the purpose of providing medical and social services for mothers and children. Medical services include prenatal and postnatal services, family planning care, and pediatric care in infancy.

Medicine

Medicine is the art and science of healing. It encompasses a range of healthcare practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness.

Mental Health Services

Mental Health Services are services for the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. Services may be provided on an inpatient or outpatient basis and are performed by a licensed psychiatrist, licensed psychologist or other licensed behavioral health therapist. Also called Behavioral Health.

Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine

Perinatal is a branch of medicine concerned with the care of the mother and fetus during pregnancy, labor, and delivery. Neonatology is a branch of pediatrics concerned with the diseases and care of newborn infants. See also Neonatology.

Neonatology

Neonatology is the field of medicine devoted to the care and treatment of infants up to six weeks old. Neonatologists concentrate on the full spectrum of medical problems that can affect newborn babies.

Nephrology

Nephrology is the study and care of the kidneys and urinary system. Nephrologists treat kidney disorders, diabetes, renal failure and other illnesses. Treatments can range from dialysis to kidney transplants.

Neurology

Neurology is the study and treatment of diseases of the brain, spinal cord, nervous system and related structures. A neurologist assists patients who have stroke complications, head injuries, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, and other afflictions of the brain and spinal cord.

Neuropsychology

Neuropsychology is a specialty that applies principles of assessment and intervention based upon the scientific study of human behavior as it relates to normal and abnormal functioning of the central nervous system. The specialty is dedicated to enhancing the understanding of brain-behavior relationships and the application of such knowledge to human problems. Psychologists have specialized training in evaluation of brain-related cognitive, learning, behavioral and emotional disorders.

Neuroradiology

Neuroradiology is a subspecialty of radiology focusing on the diagnosis and characterization of abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous system, spine, head and neck. See also Radiology.

Neuroscience

Neuroscience is the scientific study of the brain and nervous system.

Neurosurgery

Neurosurgeons specialize in surgically treating diseases and disorders of the nervous system. The nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord (central nervous system), along with the nerves of the brain and spinal cord (peripheral nervous system). See also Neurology.

Neurotology

The branch medicine that studies and treats neurological disorders of the ear.

Nuclear Medicine

Nuclear Medicine is a specialty that uses radioactive substances and sophisticated diagnostic equipment to determine a variety of conditions and diseases. The equipment used in nuclear medicine — including MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and PET (positron emission tomography) — reveals the inner workings of the body and its organs.

Nutrition

Nutrition is the science or study that deals with food and nourishment.

Obstetrics/Gynecology

Also known as OB/GYN. Obstetrics/Gynecology is the field of medicine devoted to conditions specific to women. Obstetrics is the care of a woman during pregnancy and during and after childbirth. Gynecology is the study and care of the female reproductive system, including fertility disorders. An OB/GYN specialist combines these two disciplines to provide comprehensive care for women.

Occupational Therapy

Also known as OT. Occupational Therapy is the therapeutic use of self-care, work, and recreational activities to increase independent function, enhance development, and prevent disability. OT may include adaptation of tasks or environment to achieve maximum independence and optimal quality of life.

Oncology

Oncology is also known as the treatment of cancer. Medical oncologists are specialists in using various medications to treat and manage patients with cancer. This includes the use of chemotherapy to kill cancer cells, painkillers to manage cancer pain, and drugs that will eliminate or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment. See also Hematology/Oncology.

Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology is the medical specialty devoted to care of the eye and the treatment of diseases that affect eyes and vision. An ophthalmologist diagnoses and treats abnormalities of the eye and performs surgery on the eye. Ophthalmologists are medical doctors and are different from optometrists (who test vision and prescribe corrective lenses) and opticians (who make or sell corrective eyewear).

Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the diagnosis and surgical treatment of diseases, injuries and deformities of the teeth, mouth and jaw. An oral surgeon removes wisdom teeth, repairs broken jaws and treats a range of other conditions. Specialists in this field are also called dental surgeons.

Oral Sciences

The branch of science that studies the oral cavity, or mouth.

Orthopedic Surgery

Orthopedic Surgery is the medical field concerned with the prevention and correction of muscular or skeletal injuries and abnormalities. Orthopedic surgeons treat complex conditions and injuries as well as broken bones, severe muscle sprains, and knee and other joint injuries. They also perform joint replacements.

Otolaryngology

Otolaryngology focuses on the ears, nose and throat (ENT), including sinuses and upper airway passages. Otolaryngologists diagnose and treat conditions that include hearing loss, tonsillitis and nasal obstructions.

Otology/Neurotology

An otologist is a specialist in the anatomy and structure of the ear, and how to treat diseases of the ear. See also Neurotology.

Pain Management

Physicians and other pain experts choose from an extensive series of diagnostic tests to precisely identify the source of a patient’s pain. Treatment and management possibilities are wide ranging and include physical therapy, behavioral therapy, biofeedback and pain-relieving devices that are implanted under the skin. See also Palliative Care.

Palliative Care

Palliative Care is a specialized care focused on the pain, symptoms, and stress of serious illness. See also Pain Management.

Pathology

Pathology is a medical specialty that refers to tissues and specimens removed by biopsy and surgery to diagnose normal from diseased tissues and specimens. A pathologist examines body tissues to diagnose diseases, and to determine the cause of various conditions, including death. There are several subspecialties in pathology, including anatomic pathology, dermatopathology, chemical pathology, forensic pathology, and hematopathology.

Pediatrics

Pediatrics is a field of medicine dedicated to the care of infants, children and teenagers. Doctors in this field are called pediatricians. They are often the first doctors children see, and they concentrate on preventing illness and treating children for a variety of conditions, including sore throats, earaches and infectious diseases.

Peds, Developmental-Behavioral

Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics is a medical specialty focusing on the assessment and treatment of children with developmental delays, developmental disabilities or chronic conditions effecting physical or emotional development, learning or behavior. Also known as Neurodevelopmental Pediatrics.

Perinatal Medicine

Perinatal Medicine is a branch of medicine dealing with medical and biological issues that affect the birth of a child. Perinatology combines obstetrics, gynecology and neonatology, and includes treatment of a fetus or a newborn and the mother, especially those with high risk of having complications during pregnancy and or delivery.

Pharmacy

Pharmacy is the branch of health and science that ensures the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs.

Physical Med & Rehab

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation is a medical specialty focusing on the overall physical function of a patient with emphasis on maintaining the highest level of functioning and comfort and maximizing independence through the use of therapy (physical or occupational) and/or durable medical equipment, orthotics or prosthetics. See also Physical Therapy.

Physical Therapy

Also known as PT. Physical Therapy is a branch of rehabilitative health that uses specially designed exercises and equipment to help patients regain or improve their physical abilities. Physical therapists work with many types of patients, from infants born with musculoskeletal birth defects, to adults suffering from the after- effects of injury, to elderly post-stroke patients.

Physician

Also known as doctor of medicine, medical doctor, or simply doctor. A physician practices medicine, which is concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease or injury.

Physician Assistant

A physician assistant is a healthcare professional licensed to practice medicine with supervision of a licensed physician. A physician assistant is concerned with preventing, maintaining, and treating human illness and injury by providing a broad range of healthcare services that are traditionally performed by a physician.

Physiology

Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed.

Plastic Surgery

Plastic Surgery refers to diseases and conditions requiring surgical reconstruction for deformity or loss of a body part, or for cosmetic purposes to improve appearance or function.

Podiatry

Podiatry is the study, prevention and treatment of problems of the foot, ankle, and lower leg. A podiatrist may prescribe corrective devices and medication, or recommend physical therapy.

Psychiatry

Psychiatry refers to the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental, emotional and behavioral disorders. Psychiatrists are physicians who prescribe appropriate medication and do therapy to treat of a variety of conditions, from depression to schizophrenia. Child psychiatrists focus on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental, emotional and behavioral disorders in children.

Psychology

Psychologists deal with mental processes &mdsash; both normal and abnormal — and their effects upon human behavior. Adolescent psychologists address the mental functions and behaviors of teenagers and child psychologist address the mental functions and behaviors of children.

Pulmonology

Pulmonology is a medical specialty focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic diseases and conditions of the respiratory system, such as bronchitis, asthma, emphysema and occupational lung disease.

Radiation Oncology

Also known as Radiation Therapy. Radiation Oncology is the branch of radiology that uses radiant energy and isotopes in the study and treatment of cancer. See also Radiology.

Radiation Therapy

See Radiation Oncology.

Radiology

Radiology is a medical specialty focusing on the use of radiation, ultrasound, X-rays, computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), mammography and other imaging technologies to diagnose diseases and internal disorders. See also Radiology, Diagnostic.

Radiology, Diagnostic

Diagnostic Radiology refers to X-ray, ultrasound and other imaging techniques such as Computerized Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to diagnose diseases and internal disorders. See also Radiology.

Radiology, Vascular & Interventional

Vascular and Interventional Radiology is a subspecialty of radiology in which minimally invasive procedures are performed using image guidance. Some of these procedures are done for purely diagnostic purposes while others are done for treatment purposes. Images are used to direct these procedures, which are usually done with needles or other tiny instruments like small tubes called catheters. The images provide road maps that allow the Interventional Radiologist to guide these instruments through the body to the areas containing diseases.

Skin Integrity

Skin Integrity provides clinical expertise to maintain the skin integrity of our inpatients as well as evaluates and cares for patients with skin wound and ostomy care needs on and inpatient and outpatient basis.

Sleep Disorders Medicine

Sleep Disorders Medicine is a medical specialty focusing on the evaluation, diagnosis and management of sleep related problems including sleep apnea, which is defined as breathing lapses greater than 10 seconds during sleep.

Social Work, Clinical

Clinical social workers provide mental health services for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mental, behavioral, and emotional disorders in individuals, families, and groups. Their goal is to enhance and maintain their patients’ physical, psychological, and social function.

Speech-Language Pathology

Speech-language pathologists, sometimes called speech therapists, assess, diagnose, treat, and help to prevent disorders related to speech, language, cognitive-communication, voice, swallowing, and fluency.

Spine Surgery

Surgical intervention on spinal cord, peripheral nerves emanating from spinal cord or surrounding supporting structures – bony spinal column or discs. Most common indications in a Childrens setting – trauma, congenital anomalies or progressive pathologic curvature.

Sports Medicine

Sports Medicine refers to diseases and injuries acquired in sports.

Surgery, Cardiothoracic

Cardiothoracic Surgery is the surgical diagnosis or treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the chest cavity (thorax) and rib cage, including the heart, lungs, and esophagus. See also Surgery, Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

Surgery, Cardiovascular

See Cardiovascular Surgery.

Surgery, General

General Surgery is the study and practice of all types of surgical operations. General surgeons perform a number of procedures aimed at treating a range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, appendicitis, tonsillitis and hernia.

Surgery, Hand

Hand Surgery is surgical diagnosis or treatment of diseases and injuries of the nerves, tendons, muscles, bones or skin of the hands.

Surgery, Pediatric

Pediatric Surgery is a medical specialty focusing on surgical intervention to treat a disease or correct a problem related to an injury, illness or deformity specifically with children.

Surgery, Thoracic

Thoracic Surgery is the surgical diagnosis or treatment of diseases of the chest, including lungs, heart, blood vessels and chest wall. Thoracic surgeons treat patients with lung cancer, coronary diseases, aneurysms and heart diseases. See also Surgery, Cardiothoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

Surgery, Urological

Urological Surgery is the surgical diagnosis or treatment of diseases of the kidneys, bladder and male reproductive tract.

Trauma Services

Trauma Services refers to emergency medical services and treatment for critically injured children and adults available through a specially trained team of physicians, surgeons and clinical support staff.

Urgent Care

Urgent Care refers to the treatment for a condition that requires prompt attention, but does not impose an immediate, serious health threat. An Urgent Care Clinic generally is available for services needed after normal primary care clinic hours. Compare with Emergency Medicine.

Urology

Urology is a medical specialty focusing on the diagnosis and medical or surgical treatment of diseases and disorders of the kidneys, bladder, and urinary tract as well as disorders affecting the male reproductive organs.

Vascular Surgery

Vascular Surgery is the surgical diagnosis or treatment of the body’s blood vessels, including the heart and lymph systems. Vascular surgeons treat patients for lymphatic diseases, strokes, aneurysms, varicose veins and other conditions.

Wound, Ostomy, Continence

Wound, Ostomy, Continence nursing is a specialized field of nursing involving the care of patients with wounds or other tissue injuries, stomas (such as colostomies), problems of bowel and bladder control, pressure ulcers and other skin conditions requiring specialized nursing care.